AMERICAN BACH SOCIETY
N E W S L E T T E R Spring 2002
News from Members
Timothy Albrecht performed and lectured on Bach’s Musical Offering, and has written a book, Bach Plays by Heart, Musical Theology in Organ Chorales of J. S. Bach, for which a publisher is being sought. Richard Benedum received the Alumni Chair in the Humanities at the University of Dayton, and will direct an interdisciplinary institute for teachers for the Ohio Humanities Council. Linda Hathaway Bunza presented three pre-concert lectures on classical and baroque music for the Portland Baroque Orchestra. John Butt, who left the University of California at Berkeley in 1997 to return to a post at Cambridge University, has been appointed Gardiner Professor of Music at Glasgow University. Richard Coffey, Louis Neuchterlein, and John Yocom participated in a four-part pre-concert series held in conjunction with Mr. Coffey’s performance of Bach’s Mass in B minor with the Connecticut Choral Artists. Raymond Erickson received Germany’s highest civilian honor, the Officer’s Cross of the Order of Merit, for his efforts on behalf of German-American scientific and scholarly collaboration as a founder of the Alexander von Humboldt Association of America; recent public lectures in both academic and pre-concert settings include “Bach and the Politics of Patronage,” “Bach and the Other: Religious and Ethnic Minorities in Bach’s World,” “Bach and the Religious Prejudices of His Time,” and “Bach and His Bible.” Tanya Kevorkian’s ABS 2000 paper “The Reception of the Cantata during Leipzig Church Services” appears, newly expanded, in the current issue of Early Music. Natalie Jennes’s expanded edition of Dance and the Music of J. S. Bach (with co-author Meredith Little) is now available from Indiana University Press in both hardcover and paperback, and includes two completely new sections. Anne Leahy is in residence at the Research Institute for Culture and History at Utrecht University to complete her doctoral thesis J. S. Bach, The Chorale Preludes of the Leipzig Manuscript, Music, Text, and Theology. Frank Morana performed the Six Sonatas, BWV 525-530 complete from memory for the rededication of a newly restored church organ. Mary Oleskiewicz has been appointed to the faculty of the University of Massachusetts-Boston. She recently served as a panelist in a symposium on the Musical Offering sponsored by the Musicological Society of Japan (Kanto Chapter), and performed in a lecture-concert that included the Trio Sonata from the Musical Offering played as a duo for Baroque flute and harpsichord. David Schulenberg has been appointed Professor of Music at Wagner College. He recently lectured on Bach performance practice in and around Tokyo as a visiting fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and his Keyboard Music of J. S. Bach has been published in a Japanese translation by Nozomi Sato and Sachimo Kimura (Shogagukan, 2001). Jeanne Swack received a National Endowment for the Humanities fellowship for the completion of Composition and Performance in the Music of Georg Philipp Telemann, slated for publication by Cambridge University Press. Mel Unger's English translation of Karl Hochreither’s newly revised Zur Auff¸hrungspraxis der Vokal-Instrumentalwerke Johann Sebastian Bachs is scheduled for release by Scarecrow Press in April 2002. Allan Vogel’s forthcoming touring engagements include performances of oboe obbligati in Bach Cantatas 56 and 82. Channan Willner received the 2001 Emerging Scholar Award from the Society for Music Theory for his article “Sequential Expansion and Handelian Phrase Rhythm” in Schenker Studies 2 (Cambridge, 1999).
Riemenschneider Bach Institute Fellowship
The Riemenschneider Bach Institute announces the Martha Goldworthy Arnold visiting academic research fellowship, tenable for four-week periods from September 1, 2002 thru June 30, 2003. The fellowship is for full-time residential research involving the extensive Bach-oriented resources of the Riemenschneider Bach Institute, and carries a monthly stipend of U.S.$1,500.00. The fellowship is open to scholars who already hold the Ph.D. as well as to doctoral candidates engaged in dissertation research in the humanities, the social sciences, or in a professional field such as music performance, but exceptions may be made for individuals without continuous academic careers. Applications (in English only) must include cover letter, 2-3 page proposal (single-spaced), 1-2 page curriculum vitae, list of RBI materials to be used, two letters of reference, and a proposed schedule and budget. Applications must be submitted by April 15, 2002 to Dr. Mel Unger, Director, Riemenschneider Bach Institute, Baldwin-Wallace College, 275 Eastland Road, Berea OH 44017. For further information, contact the Riemenschneider Bach Institute at 440-826-2207 or LKennelly@bw.edu.
The Art of Robert Bloom: Bach Aria Group, Vols. 1 and 2, Selected Arias with Oboe Obbligato. Boston Records 1036-37.
Exploring the ocean of the Bach cantatas, one encounters a multitude of arias that feature the oboe. The oboe and the oboe d’amore are truly given a place of honor by Bach. The instrument was hardly more than 50 years old in 1700, yet Bach developed its unparalleled expressive capabilities to a far greater extent than any other composer since. His own brother Johann Jacob played the oboe and the two young Bachs traveled together to the court at Celle, where the elder brother took oboe lessons.
The music on these two CDs is, for the most part, drawn from live performances given by the Bach Aria Group from l946 to 1980, and they offer the incomparable artistry of the renowned oboist Robert Bloom. The Bach Aria group, a stellar ensemble comprised of the leading vocal and instrumental soloists of that time, performed the arias of Bach in New York and throughout the world during the 34 years of its illustrious career. Some of these arias may be new to many listeners and will undoubtedly be much appreciated. Although each aria should be heard in its true context, it is wonderful, especially for those who have a particular love for the oboe, to hear them consecutively. Each aria, after all, more than deserves individual study through repeated listening.
We are also offered the opportunity to hear fascinating and inspiring broadcast interviews with Robert Bloom and William H. Scheide, the visionary director of the group. These interviews and the fascinating notes that accompany the two discs present us with a concise history of an ensemble that was a beacon of light for Bach lovers, music students, and musicians. Perhaps it could be said that the Bach Aria Group paved the way for the American Bach Society and for the many concerts, festivals, and activities that we celebrate in our newsletter, and we are fortunate that Dr. Scheide plays an active role in the Society.
Sara Lambert Bloom, who was the great oboist’s wife until his death in 1994 and who, along with the present writer, was also his student at the Yale School of Music, has done marvelous work in the selection of the music and in the pacing of these discs. Although there are many individual sections, the CDs do not feel fragmented, but are works of art in themselves. The engineer has done miracles so that we can appreciate Robert Bloom’s sublime playing as never before. In her extensive notes that accompany the discs, Sally Bloom gives an eloquent and vivid account of the origin, nature and development of the ensemble that played such an important role in our musical culture, and her upcoming book A Time for Bach: The Story of the Bach Aria Group (1946-1996) will explore that history even more fully.
Robert Bloom’s playing is truly ravishing. His quality of sound is extremely beautiful, personal, colorful, and deeply expressive. He goes beyond the normal limitations of the oboe because of his capacity for nuance and the legatissimo approach that we hear in world-class singing and violin playing. The sensitivity of his phrasing, the arch of his musical line, along with the wisdom, intelligence, and naturalness of his personality make him a worthy Bach interpreter. Prior to joining the Bach Aria Group, he played with the Philadelphia Orchestra and Toscanini’s NBC Symphony, where his outstanding natural musicianship was nurtured and developed.
The first disc begins with five movements from the wedding cantata Weichet nur, betr¸bte Schatten, BWV 202. The slowly rising arpeggios in the strings depict both the mists of winter turning to spring, and perhaps also, the dispersion of the troubled thoughts that might visit the betrothed couple. A wonderful sense of psychological health and humor pervades this music, especially in this performance. Many of us grew up listening to vinyl records of the Bach Aria Group, but the music is far more beautiful without the scratches and pops of a record played for the hundredth time.
The aria from Cantata 85, Ich bin ein guter Hirt, is a most comforting piece for bass voice, oboe, and strings. It is interesting how naturally and convincingly Bach can project the persona of Jesus as he assures us that “I am a good shepherd.” Hearing the tender sonority of Robert Bloom’s oboe, which by itself conveys the whole mood of the aria, I am reminded that a teacher is also a shepherd and that both J. S. Bach and Robert Bloom had over 100 students in their respective flocks.
Occasionally one hears a voice that strikes an ear attuned to 21st-century performance practice of baroque music as a bit operatic. We must remember, however, that many of these recordings are from the early 1950’s and that these were among the best voices and baroque specialists of their time. Interesting and controversial comments on performance practice, even including arguments defending the use of the piano, are provided in the superb notes.
The aria from Cantata 110, Unser Mund sei voll Lachens, is scored for alto and oboe d’amore. Bach loved this beautiful instrument which was developed in his own town of Leipzig. Indeed, it is more lovable than the oboe because the lower tessitura gives the oboe d’amore greater depth, richness, and softness of sound. Robert Bloom, who began his career as English hornist of the Philadelphia orchestra, has a particular affinity for this very special instrument that lies right between the oboe and English horn.
Three movements from Cantata 60 follow, culminating in one of the most profound chorales, “Es ist genung.” Nadia Boulanger said that its first phrase is one of great examples of musical tension, but that the second provided one of the greatest releases in all of music literature. The tempo is much more ponderous than anything we would hear from a Rilling or Koopman choir, but the meaning of the music is perfectly communicated nonetheless. The music on the first disc concludes with the aria and chorale from Cantata 79, Gott, der Herr, ist Sonn und Schild, in a performance from l966. Robert Bloom’s delicacy of articulation does a great deal to highlight the sprightly innocence of this piece. The improvisatory and carefree spirit reminds me of a comment that he made about Bach: “It’s great music,” he said, “but don’t be afraid of it!”
Early in its career, the Bach Aria Group did regular radio broadcasts and William H. Scheide was on hand to provide fascinating commentary. Sally Bloom has collected some of his remarks in the following section. These alone make the discs valuable because they are so instructive and inspiring.
Dr. Scheide makes a strong case for the performances of single arias even when it is not possible to play whole cantatas because of inherent logistical problems which stem from the variety in Bach’s instrumental and vocal forces. Yet Bach arias can only be “rescued from oblivion” when singers and instrumentalists cease inhabiting different musical worlds and come together on an equal footing. He reminds us of Albert Schweitzer’s assertion that “compared to the cantatas, everything else that Bach wrote is hardly more than a supplement.” Scheide regrets that, in over 20 broadcasts, the arias performed represented only seven percent of the more than 650 arias altogether. He points out that this literature for singers and instrumentalists (and particularly the oboe, “which was Bach’s favorite”) offers an unbelievable quality and quantity of exquisite and challenging solo parts. Finally, he thanks the listening audience for all the letters that he had received. “The seed has taken root, and this gives us cause for rejoicing.”
William H. Scheide wrote the translations for the Bach Aria Group’s concert programs, and some of these are included in the booklets that accompany the CDs. They are the best I have encountered because they are so direct, avoiding the flowery language that can be so distracting. My feeling is that in order to go more deeply into the meaning of Bach’s sacred music, we should go beyond merely translating the German into English. As we know, Bach’s music embodies truths that are fundamental to all human experience even though he and his librettists also belonged to a certain time and place.
During the course of the several interviews, we begin to grasp the sense of dedication that permeated the work of this ensemble. Bloom says of Scheide, “Here is a man who thought that if we heard more of the sacred works of Bach, the whole world would be better,” and that Bach’s music has “an uplifting message for the people who are living today.” They hoped that, through radio broadcasts and recordings, listeners would be would be moved, edified, and helped by having this music played in their own homes. I consider it a miracle that we, in our own homes, can listen to these historic Bach Aria Group recordings as well as to other excellent cantata recordings. As a performing musician, I certainly hope for many more live performances of entire cantatas, and cherish any opportunity to play them. However, these opportunities do not come often, and we must admit that the cantatas are insufficiently “rescued from oblivion.” Perhaps members of the American Bach Society can try to remedy this situation by encouraging cantata performances in the universities and professional ensembles that we belong to. Luckily, arias can be played with one singer and two or three instrumentalists in chamber music settings. In our own homes, we can listen to these arias and cantatas many times, so that the sustaining message of Bach’s music can educate our hearts.
It is an unavoidable consequence of our situation as American lovers of Bach’s music that the object of our interest is located irrevocably in a remote time and place. The music, of course, is in a sense always with us. But inevitably we look to physical traces of his world for some closer connection to him and his music, however tenuous and imaginary.
As a grateful recipient of the American Bach Society’s Scheide Research Award, I was fortunate enough to travel to Europe on research some 15 months ago. The main object of my trip was the collection of music manuscripts in the former state library (Landesbibliothek) in Dresden. I did not see the library’s greatest treasureñthe deteriorating, and thus ever more closely guarded, autograph of the B-minor Mass. I came, rather, to study the little-known collection of music manuscripts from Grimma, a town close to Leipzig whose choir school was once one of the foremost in Lutheran Germany. During the 18th century the school’s cantors gathered a repertory of both vocal and instrumental music, including sacred works similar in purpose and general outlines to those which Bach prepared for Weimar and Leipzig. Although near Leipzig, the Grimma cantors lacked access to, and perhaps had no interest in, Bach's music. When, beginning in the 1720’s, they decided to update their repertory, they turned to the music of Telemann, not Bach, who is unrepresented in the collectionñexcept in his partially autograph arrangement of Telemann's cantata Der Herr ist Kˆnig, TWV 8:6, apparently acquired after Bach’s death by cantor Siebold.
Siebold’s predecessors had collected not only Telemann but more obscure composers such as the Thomasschuler Christian Ludwig Boxberg (1670-1729)ñwhose cantata Bestelle dein Haus opens with the same motive as Bach’s setting of those words in the Actus tragicus, BWV 106. The Grimma cantors were in the habit of recording the dates of their performances of each work in red ink on their title pages. Thus we know that, despite its archaic style, Boxberg’s cantata was heard in 1724 on the 24th Sunday after Trinityñthat is, November 19, a day on which Bach, some 20 miles away, was giving the first performance of his chorale cantata Ach wie fl¸chtig, ach wie nichtig, BWV 26. Another acquisition of the Grimma cantors was a setting by “Signore Buchberg” of Picander’s Schweigt stille. Elements of Picander’s coffee comedy can be traced to the Latin poet Terence, whose works might still have been read and performed by the more advanced choir school pupils. At any rate, the poem evidently amused more than one town cantor and his students. (This setting is distinct from an anonymous one that was first edited and published in 1966.)
As access to the great Bach collections of Leipzig and Berlin grows increasingly restricted (out of concerns for preservation), it is to the crumbling remnants of less famous repertories such as Grimma’s that one must turn for a tangible connection to the music making of Bach's day. Not surprisingly, the Grimma cantors, like Bach, grappled not only with new French instruments but with the French language, as in the two “Fleute doux [sic]” of Boxberg’s cantata. Changes of scoring or pitch from one performance to the next were carefully marked in the performing materials, as in another Boxberg cantata, Halt ein, halt ein, halt aus, whose oboe part, inserted within the first violin part (possibly for the 1712 performance), sounds a minor third lower than written. One wonders whether the rubric “aus A,” added in red, was for the benefit of the violinist, who upon switching to the oboe for the chorale cantus firmus in one movement had initially played it in the wrong key. Similarly, one finds a part designated “Continuo transpos:”ña ripieno continuo part, written a whole step lower than two complete, figured partsñthat was added, perhaps in 1723, to a cantata by Heinichen, Herr nun lassest du, first performed in 1714.
Of particular interest in the light of current controversies is the presence of numerous ripieno (doubling) vocal parts, sometimes designated capella parts. In the Heinichen work these are clearly later additions, but in other instances ripieno singers were evidently involved from the beginning. Thus in Telemann’s early cantata Seˇ getreu biﬂ in den Todt, TWV 1:1284, the “sopran. Capell” part, one of four ripieno vocal parts, appears to be in the hand of the principal copyist. Nothing, however, gives reason to think vocal parts were shared; the frequent “solo” and “tutti” markings in these parts coincide with passages for single vocal parts and for the full ensemble, respectively, and similar markings often appear in organ continuo parts as well.
As one leafs through these manuscripts one grows conscious of the stylistic gap that separates most of this music from Bach’s. Yet commonalities are clear as well, not only in melodic parallelisms but in rhetorical gestures like the three choral statements of “Herr,” separated by rests, at the first vocal entry in Telemann’s Herr, wie lange?, TWV 1:778ña device that Mattheson criticized when Bach used it (on the word “ich”) in Cantata 21. One also feels, in studying these unglamorous, crumbling products of the choirmaster’s routine, a direct connection to what Bach did week after week in an environment probably not unlike that of the Grimma cantors.
Another way of establishing a connectionñone that any traveler can shareñis to visit where Bach visited. On the way to Dresden, I had passed through Berlin, where on one memorable day I happened to visit both the Old National Gallery (Alte Nationalgallerie), in central Berlin, and Frederick the Great’s palace of Sans Souci in the suburb of Potsdam. The 19th-century museum is the home of Adolf Menzel’s famous painting Flute Concert in Sans Souci, which depicts a performance by Frederick and his musiciansñamong them C. P. E. Bach at the keyboard. It was a damp, overcast December afternoon, and by the time I arrived at Sans Souci it was too late in the day to enter the building itself. But guided by my wife Mary Oleskiewiczñwho has written extensively on this subjectñI was able to peer through a window into the Music Room: the room painted by Menzel, and presumably the one in which J. S. Bach played on his famous visit, also late in the day, in May 1747.
As Mary pointed out to me, it is a very small roomñone in which the king, his musicians, and visitors would all have been in close proximity to one another. Whether hearing an improvised Bach fugue or a flute concerto by Quantz, one would have been conscious of every detail of performanceñmusical and otherwise (the aging Bach might still have been out of breath from his journey). Menzel’s painting, executed in the mid-19th century as a tribute to the Prussian monarchy, dutifully sets the king apart, within an imaginary space that seems larger than that of the actual room. Noted especially for his attention to details of physiognomyñthe musicians in the painting are easily recognizable from 18th-century portraitsñMenzel nevertheless created a pre-impressionistic effect, suffusing the scene with a slightly surreal glow (enhanced in the painting’s recent restoration) that seems to reflect the famous orange-brown of the palace’s exterior.
Alas, in the growing darkness, seen through the windows and curtains, the interior of the room seemed colorless and rather forlorn. But the early twilight of a winter afternoon in northern Germany is a part of Bach's world that Americans might not think about unless they should visit at such a time as I did. Such mundane things as climate and latitude may seem remote from music-making, yet any fantasies that we might entertain about Bach’s world are lifeless without them. At the very least, they make one appreciate even more the blazing impression that Buxtehude’s music must have made on Bach during his winter journey to L¸beck, or that Bach’s own vocal works might have made in Hamburg, where C. P. E. Bach continued to perform excerpts from them into the 1780’s. Of course, it is all too easy to imagine that we establish a connection with someone merely by retracing a few of that person’s steps. But it is a pleasant enough fantasy, and although it may be especially satisfying to indulge it by traveling overseas, as musicians we can do the same thing merely by playing Bach’s notes.
Andrew Parrott. The Essential Bach Choir (Woodbridge, Rochester: Boydell Press, 2000). xvi + 223 pp.
In this work, the author draws upon a wide range of source evidence to examine the question of the size of the vocal ensemble that Bach had in mind when performing and composing choral music. He assigns individual chapters to each of nine specific areas of inquiry, whose main body of text, footnotes, tables, musical examples, and illustrations runs about 150 pages.
He begins with Bach’s role as a cantor and music director, arguing that, notwithstanding the broad scope of Bach’s responsibilities with respect to providing music for four churches (and for apportioning singers accordingly), the principal focus of Bach’s energy was always on his own concerted music, which had its own dedicated ensembleñthe so-called “first choir”ñin which many members did not sing at all, but were put to use as instrumentalists.
He next considers several distinct categories of vocal church music, noting, again, that only the first choir was capable of performing Bach’s concerted works, while the second choir seldom performed concerted works at all; that the third choir performed only motets, chorales, and chant; and that the fourth choir sang chorales and chant only.
The motet clearly required a lesser degree of performance skill than concerted music, which brings Parrott to his most crucial consideration: the distinction between concertists and ripienists. Here he draws upon a long line of 17th and 18th-century German writers (and several early Italians) to argue that concerted vocal music was conventionally sung throughout by individual concertists only, and that ripienists merely reinforced the concertists as dispensible supernumeraries, who (according to one writer) were separated even spacially from the concertists.
On the question of copy sharing, Parrott acknowledges the difficulty of establishing proof, negative or positive, but dismisses at least three evidentiary arguments as being relevant to street-singing and chorale-singing rather than to concerted music. He discusses some of the further iconographical evidence for copy sharing, and challenges whether any iconography from Bach’s own time and place lends credence to such practice.
There are some 14 instances in which Bach explicitly calls for choral ripienists. Their deployment, according to Parrott, is of the same order as Bach’s use of colla parte instrumental scoring, and serves mainly to enhance the forward momentum of the essential concertist parts. Only in two instances (BWV 29 and 245) does the use of ripienists happen to coincide with an unvariegated doubling of all vocal parts.
Parrott’s reading of the Entwurff, Bach’s “Short but most necessary draft for a well-appointed church music,” will already be familiar to many, through the reading put forth by Joshua Rifkinñthat Bach’s stated requirements for various numbers of concertists and ripienists refer not to his “first choir,” but to the total number of singers within the four graded choirs.
Parrott next considers the possibility that additional performersñapprentices, university students, and externi (non-resident Thomas School students)ñmay have been routinely employed. As to apprentices, he notes that only one was cited in the 1730 Entwurff; as to university students, that the Entwurff expressly mentions that their participation had been lost; and as to externi, that they were barred from participation in the first choir by a 1723 ordinance, and that, with the exception of Bach’s own sons (who were, technically, externi), any musically talented externi would, as a matter of course, have sought and gained status as residents.
Two related but separate areas of inquiry follow: instrument-per-singer ratios, and balance. Regarding the first, Parrott tabulates several narrative and iconographic sources to establish that a ratio of from 2Ω to 7º instruments per singers was normative in Bach’s time, and that his works fall optimally within this norm when one assumes the presence of just one singer per part. Regarding balance, he draws upon historical, empirical, and acoustical evidence, and points out that the doubling of parts does not result in a doubling of the volume, but rather, that for volume to double, eight section members must render a single part identically.
Seven appendixes contain some of Bach’s written communications to the Leipzig Town Council, audition reports, the Entwurff, contemporary accounts of concerted music-making, a table of sources for Bach’s concerted vocal music, a chronological bibliography of 20th-century discussions of Bach’s choir, and “Bach’s Chorus,” the paper prepared (but not fully delivered) by Joshua Rifkin for the 1981 Boston meeting of the American Musicological Society, here published for the first time.
This selective list of new Bach publications is compiled annually by Yo Tomita, whose extensive online Bach Bibliography can be accessed at www.npj.com/bach/ and at www.music.qub.ac.uk/tomita/bachbib/.
The Neue Bach-Ausgabe
Bach, Johann Sebastian. Kantaten zum 2. und 3. Weihnachtstag. Kritischer Bericht. Edited by Alfred D¸rr, Andreas Glˆckner, Klaus Hofmann, Uwe Wolf, and Peter Wollny. Serie I, Band 3.1, Neue Ausgabe s‰mtlicher Werke. Kassel et al: B‰renreiter, 2000.
ñññññññ. Kantaten zum Sonntag nach Weihnachten. Kritischer Bericht. Edited by Klaus Hofmann. Serie I, Band 3.2.
ñññññññ. Varia: Kantaten, Quodlibet, Einzels‰tze, Bearbeitungen. Kritischer Bericht mit einem Bericht ¸ber Johann Sebastian Bach irrt¸mlich zugeschriebene Kantaten. Edited by Andreas Glˆckner. Serie I, Band 41.
Badewien, Jan; N¸chtern, Michael (eds). Gotteslob im Klang der Zeit. Rolf Schweizer zum 65. Geburtstag. M¸nchen-Berlin: Edition 9123, 2001.
Ebersbach, Volker. B-A-C-H (Bach) oder die Unwirklichkeit der Zeit. Winsen: H. Boldt, 2000.
Eidam, Klaus. The True Life of Johann Sebastian Bach. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
Eller, Rudolf (ed.). 100 Jahre Neue Bachgesellschaft. Beitr‰ge zu ihrer Geschichte. Leipzig: Evengelische Verlagsanstalt, 2001.
Fanselau, Clemens. Mehrstimmigkeit in J. S. Bachs Werken f¸r Melodieinstrumente ohne Begleitung. Sinzig: Studio-Verlag, 2000.
Ferretti Mei, Cristina; Ferretti, Luca. G. S. BACH. Prontuario delle Bibliografie italiane. Pano, 2000.
Geck, Martin (ed). Bericht ¸ber das 3. Dortmunder Bach-Symposium 2000. Dortmund: Klangfarben-Musikverlag, 2002.
Hohlfeld, Christoph. Schule musikalischen Denkens. Teil II: Johann Sebastian Bach: Das wohltemperierte Klavier 1722. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel, 2000.
Jena, G¸nter. Ich lebe mein Leben in wachsenden Ringen: Die Kunst der Fuge von Johann Sebastian Bach. Gedanken und Erfahrungen eines Interpreten. Verlag am Eschbach, 2000.
Knispel, Claudia Maria. Johann Sebastian Bach: Leben und Zeit im Bild. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 2001.
Krummacher, Friedhelm. Bachs Weg in der Arbeit am Werk: Ein Versuch. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001.
M‰ser, Rolf. Bach und die drei Tempor‰tsel: Das wohltemperirte Clavier gibt Bachs Tempoverschl¸sselung und weitere Geheimnisse preis. Bern: Peter Lang, 2000.
Prinz, Ulrich. Passion gedeutet: Vortr‰ge des Europ‰ischen Musikfestes Stuttgart 2000. Kassel: B‰renreiter, 2000.
Rifkin, Joshua. Bach’s Choral Ideal. Dortmund: Klangfarben-Musikverlag, 2002.
Rolf, Ares. Bachs 6. Brandenburgisches Konzert. Dortmund: Klangfarben-Musikverlag, 2002.
Roller, Joachim. Die Ausf¸hrung des Orgelcontinuo vornehmlich in den Rezitativen der geistlichen Kantaten und Passionen von Johann Sebastian Bach. Sinzig: Studio Verlag, 2002.
Rueb, Franz. 48 Variationen ¸ber Bach. Leipzig: Reclam Verlag, 2000.
Scholz, Gottfried. Bachs Passionen: Ein musikalischer Werkf¸hrer. Verlag C. H. Beck, 2000.
Stapert, Calvin R. My Only Comfort: Death, Deliverance, and Discipleship in the Music of Bach. Grand Rapids, MI: Eernmans, 2000.
Staehelin, Martin (ed). “Die Zeit, die Tag und Jahre macht”. Zur Chronologie des Schaffens von Johann Sebastian Bach. Gˆttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001.
Steiger, Renate. Gnadengegenwart. Johann Sebastian Bach im Kontext lutherischer Orthodoxie und Frˆmmigkeit. Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog, 2002.
ñññññññ (ed). Johann Sebastian Bachs Kantaten zum Thema Tod und Sterben und ihr literarisches Umfeld. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 2000.
Stevens, Jane R. The Bach Family and The Keyboard Concerto: The Evolution of a Genre. Warren, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 2001.
Stinson, Russell. J. S. Bach’s Great Eighteen Organ Chorales. Oxford & NY: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.
Teuber, Richard. Die Bach-Rezeption im fr¸hen Instrumentalwerk Paul Hindemiths. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2001.
Williams, Peter. Bach: The Goldberg Variations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Altschuler, Eric Lewin. “Trumpet major? J. S. Bach and the Reiche portrait.” Musical Times 142/1876 (Autumn 2001): 29-31.
Anderseck, Klaus. “Die monetaren Aspekte der Bauernkantate von Johann Sebastian Bach.” Concerto 18/160 (2001): 16-17.
Bertolini, Vittorio. “Le trascrizioni per clavicembalo solo ed organo solo di Johann Sebastian Bach.” Hortus Musicus 2/8 (2001): 28-29.
Bluteau, Olga. “De Josquin de Pres a Johann Sebastian Bach: La permanence du grand contrepoint.” Ostinato Rigore 16 (2001): 295-316.
Bowman, Joseph L. “The sacred trumpet cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750).” NACWPI Journal 49/4 (2001): 4-11.
Casanova, Fermina. “An·lisis de la Fuga en do menor de El clave bien temperado, Libro I, de Johann Sebastian Bach.” Musica e investigacion 4/7-8 (2001): 117-29.
Clement, Albert. “Bach en de theologie.” In: Bach en de theologie: een verkenning van geloof en gevoel, ed. Rein Nauta, Nijmegen 2001: 74-115.
Geck, Martin. “Dialektisches Denken: Bachs Erbe f¸r die Wiener Klassik.” Musiktheorie 15/3 (2001): 239-48.
Jost, Peter. “ëIl est la fin du monde medieval’: Jean-Sebastien Bach vu par Richard Wagner.” Ostinato Rigore 16 (2001): 283-93.
Leaver, Robin A. “Johann Sebastian Bach and the Lutheran Understanding of Music.” Lutheran Quarterly 16/1 (2002): 21-47.
Lester, Joel. “Heightening Levels of Activity and J. S. Bach's Parallel-Section Constructions.” Journal of American Musicological Society 54/1 (2001): 49-96.
Lyon, James. “La place du Kirchengesangbuch dans la pensee et l’oeuvre de Johann Sebastian Bach.” Ostinato Rigore 16 (2001): 125-45.
Marissen, Michael. “On the Musically Theological inJ. S. Bach’s Cantatas.” Lutheran Quarterly 16/1 (2002): 48-64.
Morana, Frank. “Probing the Organ Works of Bach, Part 3.” American Organist 35/7 (2001): 51-52.
ñññññññ. “Probing the Organ Works of Bach, Part 4.” American Organist 35/8 (2001): 58-60.
Moysan, Bruno. “L’image de la mort et de la resurrection du Christ dans la cantate BWV4 de Jean-Sebastien Bach.” Ostinato Rigore 16 (2001): 147-79.
Overduin, Jan. “Nine Published Completions for Key-board of BWV 1080/19 from The Art of Fugue by J. S. Bach.” American Organist 35/1 (2001): 78-82.
Petzoldt, Martin. “Theologisches Todesverst‰ndnis und seine musikalische Umsetzung in der mitteldeutschen Kulturlandschaft am Beispiel der Musikalischen Exequien von Heinrich Sch¸tz und der Kantate Christ lag in Todes Banden von J. S. Bach.” Tod und Musik im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, ed. Gunter Fleischhauer, et al. Michaelstein, 2001: 15-29.
Sch‰fertˆns, Reinhard. “Das Orgelrezitativ bei Dietrich Buxtehude und Johann Sebastian Bach: Ein Vergleich.” Musiktheorie 15/3 (2001): 221-37.
Stauffer, George B. “Rewriting Bach, As Bach Rewrote Others.” New York Times (February 25, 2001).
Synofzik, Thomas. “Arpeggio, CoulÈ and Separez. Zur Problematik Bach’scher Ornamentsymbole.” Concerto, Heft 162 (April 2001): 10-14.
Waldura, Markus. “Zu Johann Matthesons Lehre von den Ab- und Einschnitten der Klang-Rede.” Musiktheorie 15/3 (2001): 195-219.
Williams, Peter. “Texts and Contexts: Witting and Un-witting Allusion in Certain Keyboard Music of J. S. Bach.” Musical Quarterly 84/4 (2000) 756-75
Wind, Thiemo. “ëAus Liebe’: Mit Freuden: Zu einer neuen Interpretation von Bachs Arie aus der Matth‰us-Passion.” Tibia 1 (2001): 353-62.
Wolff, Christoph. “Recovered in Kiev: Bach et al. A Preliminary Report on the Music Archive of the Berlin Sing-Akademie.” Notes 58/2 (2001): 259-71.
Theses submitted in 2001
Arsenault, Valerie Prebys. A Pedagogical Edition and Performer’s Guide to J. S. Bach’s Cello Suites (BWV 1007-1010) transcribed for the violin. D.M., Florida State University.
Davis, Stacey. Implied Polyphony in the Unaccompanied String Works of J. S. Bach: Analysis, Perception, and Performance. Ph.D., Northwestern University.
Power, Tushaar. J. S. Bach and the Divine Proportion. Ph.D., Duke University.
Wallis, Byron Malcolm. Virtuosity and Illusion: Bach’s C-major Solo Violin Fugue in the History of Violin Polyphony. Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara.
White, Andrew C. “Good Invention Paid Back with Interest”: The Importance of Borrowing in Bach’s Compositional Process. Ph.D., City University of New York.
Igor Kipnis (1930-2002)
Igor Kipnis, d. January 23, enjoyed the formative musical influence of his father, the Metropolitan Opera basso Alexander Kipnis, in whose studio the younger Kipnis served as accompanist. He became interested in the harpsichord at an early age through a chance encounter with the harpsichord recordings of Wanda Landowska and gained his first practical experiences with the instrument while a student at Harvard University. After his debut in 1959, he played freelance harpsichord continuo with various ensembles, served as host for a New York radio program The Age of Baroque, wrote for the New York Herald Tribune, and joined Stereo Review as a record critic, a role he continued for several publications throughout his performing career.
He attained high critical acclaim as a recording artist, with a discography of over 80 titles that included the complete Bach partitas, fantasies, variations, concertos, and flute and gamba sonatas.
In 1971 he left New York for Connecticut to join the faculty of Fairfield University, but several years later relinquished the position to devote himself to his ever increasing recital and concert itinerary, which included engagements with the New York Philharmonic, the Munich Philharmonic, the Chicago, Pittsburgh, and National Symphony Orchestras, and many others.
He was founder and artistic director of the Friends of Music of Fairfield County, a chamber music series, for five years, and an artistic director of the Connecticut Early Music Festival for 13 years. He taught at Tanglewood as head of its Baroque department, and presented lectures and masterclasses at Harvard, the Peabody Institute, the Mannes College of Music, and many other institutions, and was to have served as an adjunct professor at Boston University in fall 2002.
He was a longtime member of the Southeastern and Midwestern Keyboard Society, the American Musical Instrument Society, the Dolmetch Society, the Galpin Society, and the American Bach Society. He was represented by Marilyn Gilbert Artists Management, Toronto.
Dimitry Markevitch (1923-2002)
Dimitry Markevitch, d. January 29, began cello study at age six at L’…cole Normale de Paris, and became, at seven, the first and only pupil of Gregor Piatigorsky, eventually following Piatigorsky to the United States. In 1941-42, he held scholarships at Tanglewood, and subsequently began his professional career in the U.S. armed forces. In 1958, Leonard Bernstein, newly appointed conductor of the New York Philharmonic, invited him to join the orchestra, where he became the first member ever to be engaged without audition; but five years later, he chose to resume his solo career.
The complete traversal of the Six Bach Suites, BWV 1007-12, always figured prominently in his programs, and he was among the first to perform them on a period instrument. His recordings include the Six Suites, as well as the complete Beethoven sonatas, a 10-CD archival set privately issued, and three videos.
Always keen on enlarging the cello repertoire, and in conducting musicological research for the purpose, he discovered many previously unknown works, publishing over 30 editions and transcriptions, and contributing nearly two-dozen articles to various publications.
In 1973, he founded and directed the Institute for Advanced Musical Studies in Montreux, Switzerland, and in 1977, he initiated the Colloquium on the Interpretation of Music of the Classical Period in Evry, France. He built a systematic library of over 3,000 cello scores (including 72 editions of the Bach Suites) which were catalogued in detail, and will be deposited at the Geneva Conservatory Library. His comprehensive bibliography of the unaccompanied cello repertoire, The Solo Cello, was continuously updated until the time of his death.
He was a longtime member of the American Musicological Society, the SociÈtÈ FranÁaise de Musicologie, and the American Bach Society. Inquiries concerning The Solo Cello, archival discography, and other aspects of the musical estate can be directed to Mrs. Gitta B. Markevitch at <email@example.com>.
2002 by The American Bach Society.
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